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The "Method of classification of textile auxiliaries according to their waste water relevance" provides a logic system for the classification of textile auxiliaries in 3 classes of relevance:
Class I Minor relevance to waste water
Class II Relevant to waste water
Class III High relevance to waste water
The main criteria for the classification are the content of certain harmful (including bioaccumulative) substances, biological degradation or elimination and aquatic toxicity of the sold products (see scheme on next page).
The introduction of the classification concept rests essentially on the following pillars:
· Classification by producers on their own responsibility, guided by the association of textile auxiliaries suppliers, called TEGEWA (TEGEWA = Verband der TExtilhilfsmittel-, Lederhilfsmittel-, GErbstoff- und WAschrohstoff-Industrie e.V., D-60329 Frankfurt)
· Screening of correct classification of textile auxiliaries in the three classes by an expert.
· A monitoring report on the effectiveness of the voluntary commitment which will be communicated to the authorities. For this purpose numbers and quantities of textile auxiliaries classified in classes I, II and III and sold in Europe are collected by a neutral consultant from the manufacturers.
· The triggering of market mechanisms towards the development of environmentally sounder products.
It is not claimed that the classification concept allows a differentiated ecotoxicological evaluation of textile auxiliaries. The purpose of the classification concept is rather to allow users to select textile auxiliaries also from ecological aspects. Ecological competition is intended to trigger a trend towards the development of environmentally more compatible textile auxiliaries. The German Association of the Textile Finishing Industry (TVI-Verband, D-Eschborn) is officially supporting this concept and has signed and published a self-commitment to recommend the textile finishing industries to use classified products only and preferably such of classes I and II («TVI-Verband, 1997»).
A classification of the textile auxiliary is possible both on the basis of data of the preparation and on the basis of data of the ingredients by calculating mean values for the ingredients. For data to be newly determined, it is recommended to determine those data on the basis of the ingredients.
Footnotes mentioned in the classification scheme:
1. Problematic substances are
1.1 CMR substances which are - according to Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC -
· classified as "carcinogenic" cat. 1 or cat. 2 and labelled with R45 (May cause cancer) or R49 (May cause cancer by inhalation),
· classified as "mutagenic" cat. 1 or cat. 2 and labelled with R46 (May cause heritable genetic damage) or R60 (May impair fertility),
· classified as "toxic for reproduction" cat. 1 or cat. 2 and labelled with R61 (May cause harm to the unborn child).
1.2 Ingredients which have an aquatic toxicity (definition see footnote 4) of < 0.1 mg/l and are not readily biodegradable (definition see footnote 3),
1.3 Low-molecular halogen hydrocarbons (halogen share > 5 %, chain length C1 - C12),
1.4 Arsenic and arsenic compounds,
1.5 Lead and lead compounds,
1.6 Cadmium and cadmium compounds,
1.7 Tri- and tetra-organotin compounds,
1.8 Mercury and mercury compounds,
1.10 EDTA, DTPA.
2. In connection with classifications made within this voluntary commitment, substances shall be considered "accumulative" which are labelled either with R-phrase 53 "May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment" alone, or with R53 in combination with other R-phrases.
3. Readily biodegradable = OECD tests 301 A-F with > 60 % BOD/COD or CO2 formation, respectively, or > 70 % DOC reduction in 28 days.
4. Aquatic toxicity of textile auxiliaries =
LC 50 daphnia (if not available to be substituted by fish).
5. Biodegradable/eliminable = OECD test 302 B: > 70 % DOC reduction in 28 days, or OECD test 302 C: > 60 % O2 consumption, or Proof of a > 70 % reduction in precipitation typical of sewage treatment plants.
For textile auxiliaries the evaluation "readily biodegradable (3)", "aquatic toxicity" (4), and "biodegradable/bioeliminable" (5) can be made not only on the basis of test data of the ready-for-use preparation but also on the basis of valid data obtained by calculating mean values for the various ingredients.
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